ID24 is an intense source of linearly polarized X-rays principally used to probe the electronic, magnetic and local structure in a diverse range of systems with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and related techniques. The photon energy is tunable in the energy range 5 - 28 keV, covering absorption edges of elements between Titanium to Uranium.

The beamline is equipped with:

  • 4 planar undulators: two U27, one U32 and a revolving U27/U32 assembly
  • Two energy dispersive XAS spectrometers and associated experimental areas
  • Optics focusing down to 3 x 3 µm (H x V) FWHM. Horizontal spot size is energy dependent, ranging from 3 µm at 5 KeV to 50 µm at 28 KeV
  • A variety of sample environments:
    1. A double sided laser heating facility for the diamond anvil cell (P > 100GPa, T > 3000K)
    2. A combined XAS/DRIFTS spectrometer (Tmax = 800 K)
    3. A pulsed magnetic field microcoil associated to a liquid He cryostat (H = 30 T, T = 3 K)
    4. A 0.7 T permanent magnet coupled to a liquid He cryostat for XMCD studies at high pressures (T = 100 GPa) and low temperatures (T =2 K) in the diamond anvil cellA 1.2 T permanent magnet device for XMLD studies
    5. We can also adapt to a variety of user experimental stations.

Scientific Applications

The beamline is primarily used to investigate the electronic and local structure in crystalline, amorphous and liquid matter in a variety of thermodynamical and reaction conditions. Experiments fall into two main categories:

  • Studies of matter at extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and magnetic field
  • Time resolved studies of dynamical processes

The research on ID24 covers different scientific domains, including solid state physics, materials science, geosciences, environmental science, solution chemistry, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis.

Chemistry

  • Heterogeoneous catalysis for the energy sector
  • In situ/operando time resolved studies of chemical and catalytic processes coupling X-ray absorption with infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry
  • Development of new experimental methodologies for coupling vibrational spectroscopies with transmission X-ray methods (XAFS, diffraction)
  • Development of new methods for interrogating ultra fast chemical proceses in catalysis (photocatalysis/laser heating) permitting synchronous XAFS/IR a time scales to a few tens of nanoseconds

Magnetism

  • Interplay between magnetism, local structure and electronic structure at very high magnetic fields (> 30 T)
  • Interplay between magnetism, local structure and electronic structure in compressed matter (> 100 GPa)

Matter at extreme pressures and temperatures

  • Studies of the local and electronic structure in solid and molten matter at extreme pressures and temperatures using double sided laser heating (T > 3000 K, P > 100 GPa)
  • Kinetics of chemical reactions at extreme conditions down to the millisecond timescale
  • Two dimensional mapping with micron resolution within the diamond anvil cell

Material science

  • Local structural characterization for advanced materials
  • Differential XAS studies of local atomic displacements in piezoelectricity, magnetostriction, electrostriction, etc.

X-ray Techniques Available

  • Probes of local and electronic structure:

X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XANES, EXAFS) and linear dichroism (XLD)

  • Probes of magnetism:

X-ray Magnetic Circular and Linear Dichroism (XMLD, XMCD)

Methods and Sample Environments Available

Time resolved XAFS spectroscopy

  • Asynchrone “Film mode” for kinetic studies down to the ms regime
  • Bunch-synchronized “Film mode” for kinetic studies down to the ms regime
  • Pump-probe acquisition, down to the 100 ps timescale
  • Single shot acquisition, down to the 100 ps timescale (1 single bunch)

XAFS and or XMCD studies of matter at extreme conditions

  • XAFS at high Pressure (> 100 GPa) and high Temperature (T> 3000K) using in-situ laser heated Diamond Anvil Cell
  • XAFS and/or XMCD/XMLD at High Magnetic Field (B = 30 T, T=3K)
  • XAFS and/or XMCD/XMLD at High Pressure and low Temperature (P = 100 GPa, T = 2K)

XAFS studies of heterogeneous systems

  • 1D and 2D hyperspectral mapping in transmission mode. Fluorescence mode is also available for specific applications.