The following sample environments are available at the beamline.

  1. Stopped-flow rapid mixing device: The device is based on a commercial instrument (BioLogic, SFM-400) with four stepper motor driven syringes and three mixers. A home-made SAXS/WAXS flow-through capillary cell (diameter ~1.6 mm) is adapted to the mixing chamber. The flow can be stopped with millisecond accuracy using a solenoid driven stopper. The dead time of mixing is about 2 ms for flow rates exceeding 7 ml/sec. This device can be used also in continuous flow mode. A minimum sample volume of 2ml per syringe is required.
  2. Stress controlled rheometer: The stress controlled rheometer is a commercial Haake RS600 and RS300 and the shaft drives an X-ray transparent couette cell. The concentric cylinders (inner diameter 20 mm, outer diameter 22 mm, and height 40 mm) are machined out of polycarbonate (lower background) or aluminum (for higher temperatures up to 170 °C and good organic solvents) with wall thickness around the beam position ~100 µm. Minimum sample volume required is about 2.5 ml. For highly viscous samples, a plate-plate type shearing geometry is available.
  3. Mettler heating stage (FP90/FP84HT) : It is used to perform programmed temperature ramping and quenching (20 °C/min, nominal stability of 0.1 °C) primarily in crystallization studies. In addition, this setup can be used to change the sample temperature over a wide range (25 to 350 °C depending on the sample container availability). The solid samples (in the form of a circular disc - diameter 3 to 10 mm) can be mounted directly and the liquid samples can be contained in sealed capillaries (diameter 1 to 2 mm).
  4. Linkam heating stage: (THMS600/TMS94) It can perform faster temperature ramping and quenching (up to 80 °C/min, nominal stability of 1 °C) primarily in crystallization studies. This setup can also be used to change the sample temperature over a wide temperature range (-100 to 600 °C). An adaptor to mount solid samples (in the form of a circular disc - diameter 3 to 10 mm) and liquid samples (in sealed capillaries of diameter 1 mm) is available
  5. Peltier controlled flow-through cell: This flow-through capillary cell is operated in air. Two types of capillary are available: one made from bio-compatible polycarbonate with a wall-thickness of either 0.1 mm or 0.05 mm and a diameter of 2.0 mm. The second type is a quartz-capillary, of which a range of different diameters is available (1.0 mm - 2.0 mm). Using the flow-through cell allows reliable measurement of sample and solvent scattering of low scattering liquid samples (reliable background subtraction!). A temperature range between 5 to 80 °C is accessible.
  6. Magnetic field: It is based on permanent magnets arranged periodically as in the undulator. The field can be varied from 0.1 mT to 1.5 T. The direction of the magnetic field can be either perpendicular or parallel to the beam direction. An oven adapted for both capillaries and flat cells is also available to perform measurements in the range of temperature (25 to 300 °C). This setup can be used as an alternative to shear flow in the case of mineral liquid crystals.
  7. Peltier controlled automatic sample changer:
    • Four position sample changer: The temperature (5 to 100 °C) is controlled by a Peltier element. The samples are contained in liquid tight aluminium cells with thin mica or mylar windows. The sample thickness can be 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mm. The setup is available for all users. However, windows have to be provided by the users (supplier info).
    • Industrial sample changer: A more advanced version of the above setup is available explicitly for industrial experiments. 30 sample cells can be placed at the same time. The temperature is controlled by Peltier elements and can be varied from 10 to 120 °C in less than 30 minutes. The gas tight sample cells are made of aluminum with nickel coating and mica windows.
    • Capillary sample changer: This set-up allows to mount 8 sealed capillaries of diameter ranging from 1 to 2mm. The temperature can be varied from 5 to 120 °C. Best adapted for measurements around 12.4keV are quartz capillaries with a diameter of 1.5 or 2.0mm. Please make also sure to carefully verify the diameter of the capillaries before using. This ensures faster loading of the samples and facilitates intensity calibration of the scattering curves.
      The set-up is less adapted for the study of low scattering liquid samples due the difficult background subtraction using different capillaries for sample and solvent.
  8. Ancillary equipments:
    • Three Huber Ministat and
      one Huber Unistat thermostatic baths (all remotely controlled)
    • laboratory power supplies:
    Delta SM 70V-22A,
    Lab trisource 30V 1A, 5V 1A, ±15V 0.2A,
    Olotronix trisource 30V 1A, 5V 1A, ±15V 0.2A,
    Midec power supply

 

Further Information