ID21 - X-ray Microscopy Beamline


ID21 comprises four end-stations: (a) a scanning X-ray microscope optimized for 2D µXRF (elemental maps) and µXANES (punctual chemical speciation) (beam size 0.3µm Vx0.7µm H, 2-9 keV, under vacuum), (b) a 2D full-field XANES instrument, working in transmission (speciation maps) (micrometric resolution, 2-9 keV, under vacuum), (c) a scanning X-ray microscope optimized for 2D µXRD and µXRF (phase and elemental maps) (beamsize 0.7µm Vx2µm H, 8.5keV (fixed), in air) and (d) a scanning infrared microscope (molecular 2D maps) (beamsize ~5-10µm, 700-4000cm-1, in air)
Status:  open


  • Medicine
  • Cultural Heritage
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • Materials and Engineering
  • Life Sciences
  • Physics
  • Chemistry


  • Cultural Heritage (e.g. paintings, ceramics, glasses)
  • Biology (e.g. nano-toxicology, pathology, metallobiology, health)
  • Geochemistry (e.g. basaltic glasses, sediments)
  • Environmental sciences (e.g. soils, phytoremediation, pollution)
  • Materials (e.g. nano-materials, energy)


  • XANES - X-ray absorption near-edge structure
  • XRF - X-ray fluorescence
  • FTIR - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy/microscopy
  • MicroXRF - micro X-ray fluorescence
  • MicroXANES - micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure
  • XRD - X-ray diffraction
  • XAS - X-ray absorption spectroscopy

Energy range

  • 2.1 - 9.2  keV

Beam size

  • Minimum (H x V) : 0.7 x 0.3  µm²
  • Maximum (H x V) : 2.0 x 2.0  mm²

Sample environments

  • SXM: In vacuum operation; Cryo-stage; Wet cell
  • FF-XANES: In vacuum operation
  • µXRD: in air
  • µFTIR: in air (possibility to use Linkam stage)


  • SXM end-station (2.1 - 9.2 keV, 0.7 x 3 µm² to 2 x 2 mm [hxv]): regularly used Si photodides; SGX 100mm² SiriusSD silicon drift diode.
  • Occasionally or previously used: Röntec XFlash 2001 10mm² Silicon Drift Diode; Bruker XFlash 5100 80mm² Silicon Drift Diode; Princeton Gamma Tech 50mm² HpGe detector; Princeton Gamma Tech 7 x 50 mm² multi-element HpGe; Compact wavelength dispersive spectrometer
  • FF-XANES endstation: CMOS PCO.edge camera
  • µXRD end-station: XRD camera: taper FreLon detector (2048 x 2048 pixels, pixel size 52 µm); XRF detector: AXAS-M Ketek 80 mm² SDD detector
  • µFTIR end-station: Thermo Nicollet Nexus infrared spectrometer; Thermo Nicolet Continuum infrared microscope (acquisition in transmission, reflection, attenuated total reflectance [ATR] mode); MCT 50 µm (700-4000cm-1) and InGaAs Detector (11700-3800 cm-1)

Technical details

Beamtime proposals can request access to one or several of the ID21 endstations in a single experiment.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon and J. Susini, "The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials." Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry (2017).

M. Salomé, M. Cotte, R. Baker, R. Barrett, N. Benseny-Cases, G. Berruyer, D. Bugnazet, H. Castillo-Michel, C. Cornu, B. Fayard, E. Gagliardini, R. Hino, J. Morse, E. Papillon, E. Pouyet, C. Rivard, V. A. Solé, J. Susini and G. Veronesi, "The ID21 Scanning X-ray Microscope at ESRF", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 425, 182004 (2013).



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