The increase in experimental possibilities associated with the new synchrotron sources is often limited by the quality of available detectors. In order to increase the experimental possibilities of the D2AM beamline at the ESRF, new 2D detectors were developed using the pixel hybrid technology aiming to provide a large dynamical range and a high counting rate as required by materials science studies using X-ray scattering. The project started in 1999, and three fast photon counting pixel detectors supplements currently the beamline: S70, D5, and WOS.


D2AM ImXpad detectors. Chahine et al. Metals 2019, 9, 352.

These Si-based detectors were produced by IMXPAD  and developed with the beamline staff through collaboration with CPPM (Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 2009, 607, 233–235.

The main characteristics are:

Specifications of the ImXpad detectors.                                                                         Specifications of the D5 detector.

(ref 03/07/2018                   (ref   03/07/2018

Specifications of the WOS detector. (ref 03/07/2018

linear counting rate of 2x105 photons/s/pixel

a dynamic range of 32 bits, and a pixel size of 130 x130 µm2

A threshold tunable over an energy range of 4–35 keV

The D5 modules are stacked in a column to increase the detection area. The inter-module gap of 5 mm for electronic wirings and connections.

The WOS has 10 modules mounted in 5 rows x 2 columns in order to maximize the detection area, particularly forWAXS measurements. The particularity of this detector lies in the larger horizontal gap between the two modules of the second row. This gives way for a 10mm opening. On its backside, a 10 cm exit opening increases the exit angular range. It can be used both on the diffractometer to have a large angular range and on the SAXS granite table where it can detect WAXS signals and let the transmitted beam go through its opening. The transmitted beam, thus, gets detected by the D5 that can be mounted one to three meters downstream of the sample. Accordingly, this configuration allows for conducting simultaneous SAXS/WAXS experiments.

These detectors may be mounted on the granite table on motorized z–y translation stages or on the detector arm of the kappa diffractometer that can rotate around the z- and y-axes. The sample–detector distance may consequently range respectively between 20 cm to 5 m or 10 cm to 2 m for SAXS and XRD measurements.


The project involved 3 laboratories :


  • Institut Neel, CNRS, Grenoble and CRG D2AM at ESRF with J.F. Bérar, N. Boudet, B. Caillot, S. Arnaud
  • Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3 with P. Delpierre, P. Breugnon, J.-C. Clemens, B. Dinkespiler, S. Godiot, M. Menouni, Ch. Morel, P. Pangaud, R. Potheau, E. Vigeolas
  • Synchrotron Soleil, Paris with S. Hustache, K. Medjoubi.