The complexity of heterogeneous devices such as fuel cells, organic solar cells, rechargeable batteries, catalytic materials, etc. can only be studied adequately by a combination of experimental methods, in order to reveal the interplay between the microscopic material properties and the macroscopic device performances. As the need for combining techniques has been instrumental in the development of electron microscopy it is seen as equally important for the evolution of hard x-ray synchrotron methods applied in-situ for studying both real devices under operating conditions and idealized model systems under precisely controlled environments. Therefore, ID31 enables a portfolio of hard x-ray characterization techniques including reflectivity, wide angle diffraction both in transmission and grazing incidence geometry, small angle x-ray scattering, and imaging methods coupled with a great versatility in choosing beam sizes, energy bandwidth and detectors optimized for high energy x-rays. The design enables many different studies with remarkable potential.
Beamline is operational from autumn 2015.
For further technical description, please see http://www.esrf.eu/home/UsersAndScience/Experiments/Beamlines/content/content/ID31.html
Laetitia Dubau et al., ACS Catalysis, 6(2016), pp 4673–4684