ID29 - Multiple-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction (MAD)
The beamline is described in this paper (JSR 2012 19: 455-61). Please cite it for data collected on ID29
Conceptual design of the beamline
ID29 is intended for high intensity, high energy resolution MAD and SAD measurements over a wide range of X-ray wavelengths. It uses two complementary undulator sources - a standard U35 and an in vacuum U21. The beamline is automated so that users can select an absorption edge and the software will move the undulator gaps and monochromator angle to the X-ray wavelength required. The beam is conditioned by various sets of slits and attenuators, and monitored by a series of viewers and beam position monitors. The use of these devices aides the automated routines to check the beam characteristics. The main optical elements are a liquid nitrogen cooled channel-cut silicon monochromator and a cylindrical grazing incidence mirror, the latter which is bent to approximate to a toroidal curvature. The toroidal mirror is curved by a pneumatically operated bending mechanism and focusses the beam in both the horizontal and vertical. The nominal FWHM spot size at the sample is roughly 50*60 microns (H*V).
Two monochromator crystals are available, a high resolution Si(311) cut and a lower resolution Si(111) cut. The former is recommended for precise "white line" measurements. Due to geometry of the channel-cut crystal, the Si(311) monochromator can only be used at energies higher than 9.6 keV.
Since January 2009, ID29 is equipped with a microdiffractometer (MD2) which allows to tailor the beam sizes down to 75 (full beam), 50, 30, 20 and 10 microns in diameter. An additional beam cleaning aperture at the end of the collimator reduces the noise level on the detector. Different beamsizes are shown in figure below. Helical data collection is done using the 4dscan option that permit to translate the crystal while collecting.
Available Wavelength Range
The above undulator sources give an almost continually tunable wavelength with high intensity over this wavelength range : 0.62 - 2.07 Å (20 - 6 keV) for the Si(111) and 0.62 - 1.3 Å (20 - 9.6 keV) for the Si (311) monochromator, respectively.
Since July 2010, ID29 is equipped with a Pilatus 6M detector which has an active area of 424 x 435 mm2 (2463 x 2527 pixels, which are 172 microns in size). In July 2012 Pilatus 6M was upgraded to 6M-F that can collect at 25Hz frame rate with a readout time of 3ms.
The X-ray fluorescence detector for automatic absorption edge scanning is a Rontec Silicon drift diode which has an energy resolution of less than 250 eV at 5.9 keV and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz. Coupled with the a series of attenuators on actuators, this detector allows absorption spectra to be automatically recorded on the smallest of crystals as well as concentrated solutions of mother liquor.
Preparation laboratory and Data Processing
A small prep lab is available to users and this contains much of the basic material to prepare samples. Computing facilities are available to process diffraction images, solve crystal structres at the beamline and visualise electron density maps.
Complementary InformationAs all other MX-beamlines, ID29 is also equipped with an automated sample changer.