also exemplified here by work, supported by MX data collected at ID29, detailing the mechanism used in the transfer of ubiquitin to protein substrates required for normal neuronal function (page 50). Other work presented here effectively illustrates how X-ray diffraction (beamline MASSIF-1) and cryo-EM studies (not performed at ESRF) can be combined to provide crucial mechanistic information in this case understanding the biased signalling routes of a G protein-coupled receptor (page 41).
A number of articles focus on the packaging and segregation of the genetic information contained on DNA. This is, of course, a fundamental aspect of all living organisms and, here, research is presented which improves our understanding of the role of DNA segregation in Myxococcales (page 36), which reveals FKBP53 to be a chimeric chaperone involved in chromatin remodelling in plants (page 37), and which provides structural insights into genome folding by cohesin-CTCF (page 39).
Finally, and in keeping with trends observed in recent years, a series of articles focuses on searches for new therapeutic agents, new biomaterials, and on green solutions for biocatalysis. The former areas include the determination of the crystal structures of antimicrobial peptides, revealing them to associate as densely packed helical fibrils, thus offering potential routes for the design of biomaterials with improved properties (page 47), and work shedding light on the essential mechanism used by fungi to transfer substrates from the plasma membrane to the cell wall, providing a structural basis for the potential development of new, antifungal therapeutics (page 48). The latter area includes the bio-recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics (page 42), the enzymatic reduction of carbon dioxide (page 52), and the structure-guided computational engineering of an improved biocatalyst for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure chiral amines (page 54).
We hope you enjoy reading the selection of highlights presented here. We also hope to see you in Grenoble as soon as possible. In the meantime, please stay safe!
G. LEONARD AND C. MUELLER-DIECKMANN